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Dosage Optimization

About Synergism and Antagonism Joint Action Models Analysis Methods
 

It costs hundreds of millions of dollars and takes years for the research and development of a single pesticide product (Phillips McDougall 2010) so strategies to increase their lifespan and usefulness are highly desirable. Pesticides usually are only tested alone, while in practice growers often use them in combination. Pesticides are used in combination to reduce farm labor costs (Wright, Lindsay et al. 1982) control different pests on a plant host (Singano 2012), to take advantage of different weaknesses of a single plant pest (Janis 2008), and to delay pesticide resistance (Brindley and Selim 1984). In some cases, growers unwittingly have discovered that a pesticide combination at particular dosages provides greater control of a plant pest than that expected based upon their individual effectiveness. Very little scientific research has been on these synergistic pesticide joint action effects, as well as antagonistic joint action effects whereby particular dosages of a pesticide combination are less effective than that expected based upon their individual effectiveness (Brindley and Selim 1984, De Waard 1984, De Waard 1985, De Waard 1987, De Waard 1996, DeMilia 1996).

One important benefit of the study of pesticide joint action effects is that by optimizing interaction effects between pesticides, the pesticide dosages required to obtain a desired level of disease control can often be reduced. Such a reduction may enable a significant decrease in pesticide usage by growers without a loss in disease control. The optimization of pesticide dosages can significantly reduce pesticide usage and can result in considerable economic savings to growers. Identifying pesticides that interact also is an important with respect to pesticide safety programs since pesticide combinations can sometimes pose a much greater hazard to public health, particularly pesticide applicators (Aktar, Sengupta et al. 2009, Coleman, O'Neil et al. 2012). Pesticide combinations can even have unexpected deleterious effects on the host plant (Untiedt and Blanke 2004). An agricultural expert system ideally needs to take into consideration the entire IPM program for a crop if it is going to emulate complex human knowledge based reasoning. While other aspects of most IPM programs have a sufficient knowledge base that can be utilized in an expert system, the optimization of pesticides dosages used regularly in combination is one area where knowledge is significantly lacking. As a start, guidelines were previously developed to expose researchers to existing methods of analysis and provide advice for their proper use (DeMilia 1996).

The dosage optimization component will be one of the base modules of DemiAg. Dosage optimization techniques also will be an integral part of the DemiAg Expert System for Agricultural Pest Management knowledge bases. In the future, you will be able to find here strategies for using DemiAg based upon dosage optimization practices. This will be a free portal for providing IPM information to agricultural, farmers, and home gardeners.

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Coming soon. We will start delivering dosage optimization information during 2017. The dosage optimization component will be one of the first base modules of DemiAg to be completed. It will be a few years before we get DemiAg up and running.

About Synergism and Antagonism Joint Action Models Analysis Methods
 
 
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